Getting your system in order takes planning.
A workflow in photo editing parlance are the steps that you take in order to post-process an image or a batch of images. These are the usual 'standard procedure' that a photographer / photo editor prefers to go through when editing their images.
At this point you might be thinking that there is no way that one could use the same steps to post-process all photos and in every situation. Yes that is correct. But workflow does not have to be the same for all photos anyways. Let's say that you shoot night time long exposures. This is a special technique which requires a special set of settings when you shoot. Post-processing of these images, too, requires a certain approach. Such as bringing down the highlights, slightly adjusting the shadows, increasing the contrast, noise reduction, applying lens profile correction, adjusting white balance and adjusting the hues and saturation.
Even the process of renaming files is a part of the whole workflow process. A typical workflow can be like this –
Download all photos on to your computer hard drive. Make a backup of all the RAW files to a separate hard drive. Make a second (redundant) copy of the RAW files to a second external hard drive. Open the photos in Lightroom. Check lens profile correction and remove chromatic aberrations. If the images have been shot under the same light and the exposure is also the same, you could make adjustment for the exposure, white balance, hue, saturation and contrast in one image and then copy the adjustments to all the other images. Finally, when the global adjustments have been done you can make local adjustments as necessary using the brush tool or the radial filter tool. Lastly, renaming each of the files to something specific like, day-month-year-trip-numeric-number can also be done in an automated way and be a part of the workflow when saving the JPEG version of the files.